Funded on September 1, 2022

In May 2020, over a third of all workers and 41 percent of all women workers spent at least some of their time working remotely. At that time, only a quarter of the workforce, mostly essential workers, worked outside of their homes. Relatedly, prior to COVID-19, women in the United States spent 37 percent more time on household and care work than men. Black and Latina women spent considerably more time on care work than either their male counterparts or White women. In a survey conducted by IWPR in January 2022, more than 60 percent of women surveyed considered control of their schedules and flexibility to be “very important” or “important.” Compared with other groups of women, women of color were less likely to report having flexibility over their schedule and job security. This study will use the 2020 American Time Use Survey (ATUS) and prepandemic ATUS to understand changes in time use among women, and model policies at the federal and state levels that could promote flexibility for lower-wage workers and women. The research team will also conduct a national survey on workplace flexibility practices focused on the connection between workplace flexibility and mental health outcomes.